Lesson 9: What are these or those? Who are these or those people?
- ke'kwa'na o'ho
- 'What are these?'
- ke'kwa'na ne'hi
- 'What are those in the distance?'
- awe'nikik o'kok
- 'Who are these people?' (Dialects: awe'niki for awe'nikik and o'ko for o'kok.)
- masinahikana anihi
- 'Those are books.'
- iskwe'wak anikik
- 'Those are women.' (Dialects: aniki for anikik.)
- na'pe'wak o'kok
- 'These are men.'
- atimwak anikik
- 'Those are dogs.'
- wacahkosak anikik
- 'Those are stars.'
- 'The sun and moon.'
- 'My sons.'
- 'My daughters.'
A few additional useful nouns
- 'a boy'
- 'a girl'
- 'a puppy, a little dog'
- 'puppies, little dogs'
- 'a store'
- 'a sled, a car'
- 'sleds, cars'
- 'cloud' (Dialects: waskoy for wasko.)
- 'a stone'
- 'a tree, a stick'
The nouns in section 9 were all singular nouns, that is, they refer to
a single item or mass. To refer to more than one item, a suffix is added to a
noun in both English and Cree. Such a suffix is called a plural suffix,
and a noun with a plural suffix is called a plural noun.
In English, the plural suffix is usually -s or -es (pronounced -s, -z or -iz).
In Cree, the plural suffix is usually -ak or -a, use as follows:
-ak is used with animate nouns (sentances 5-8, 12-14).
-a is used with inanimate nouns (sentances 4, 9-11).
Some nouns insert w before the plural suffixes, namely, atim, pi'sim,
ata'wikamik, ota'pa'na'sk, and mistik among those given up to now.
wasko adds y before -a.
The plural demonstrative pronouns are:
|o'kok ||o'ho ||'these'|
|anikik ||anihi ||'those'|
|ne'kik ||ne'hi ||'those in the distance'|
(Dialects: o'ko, aniki, ne'ki for o'kok, anikik, ne'kik.)
The interrogative pronouns also have plurals, unlike English:
- 'who? (referring to more than one)', 'what people?'
- 'what? (referring to more than one)', 'what things?'
Remember, animate and inanimate are only grammatical terms indicating which
demonstrative pronouns and plural suffixes a noun occurs with. Animate nouns
include the names of some non-living things.
Copyright ©1996-1999 Grant Neufeld. All rights reserved.